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Semantics

Linguistics:

Lexical relations

Relation Description Example
Synonymy the same pretty and attractive are synonyms
Antonymy the opposite up and down are antonyms
Hypernymy superordinate animal is a hypernym of mammal
Hyponymy subordinate dog is a hyponym of mammal
Meronymy part bark is a meronym of tree
Holonymy part of itself forest is a holonym of tree, body → arm → elbow
Troponymy a particular way trim and slice, slide and spin, snack and nibble
Coordinate term shared hypernym man and woman share various hypernyms (human, person, adult)

List of semantic primes.

Substantives I, you, someone, people, something/thing, body
Relational substantives Kind, part
Determiners This, the same, other~else~another
Quantifiers adds meaning to stem
Evaluators likely to change the stem’s part of speech
Descriptors Big, small
Mental predicates Think, know, want, don’t want, feel, see, hear
Speech Say, words, true
Actions, events, movement Do, happen, move
Existence, possession Be (somewhere), there is, be (someone/something), (is) mine
Life and death Live, die
Time When/time, now, before, after, a long time, a short time, for some time, moment
Space Where/place, here, above, below, far, near, side, inside, touch (contact)
Logical concepts Not, maybe, can, because, if
Intensifier, augmentor Very, more
Similarity Like/as/way

Rel: