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MGT 291

Study guide.

Module 1

Organizational Behavior is a field of study of human behavior for improving an organizations effectiveness.


Four basic management functions:

  1. Planning: setting goals, establishing strategy to pursue goals, forecasting future threats/opportunities
  2. Organizing: designing organization’s structure, identifying tasks that need to be done, hiring, delegating tasks, creating a chain of command, rules of communication
  3. Leading: directing/coordinating the work of others, influencing, motivating, maintaining morale, resolving individual group conflicts
  4. Controlling: monitoring performance, taking appropriate actions to get back on track

Three management skills:

  • Effective at work
  • Helps you become a more effective employee/manager
  • Organizations benefit as a whole

Define “independent variable” and “dependent variable”.


Moderator → “when to work” dependent situation

Mediator → “why it works” explanatory mechanism


Common dependent variables: productivity, creativity, dysfunctional behaviors, work attitudes

Common independent variables: individual level (personality, motivation), group level (leadership, work team), organization level (HR policies)


Scientific Management → management to principles of efficiency derived from experiments in methods of work and production, especially from time-and-motion studies to find the “one best way”

Four Principles of Scientific Management:

  1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb
  2. Harmony, Not Discord
  3. Cooperation, Not Individualism
  4. Development of Each and Every Person to His / Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity

Hawthorn effect → we preform better when people are watching


Human Relations Movement → workers are not essentially interchangeable parts motivated solely by money

The System Perspective: Organization is a system of elements and environment functioning as a whole

  • Shows importance of workplace environment
  • Focuses on flow and interaction of workplace elements

Contingency/Situational Perspective: Situations and outcomes are based on many variables

Universal Perspective: presumes a direct cause-and-effect linkage between variables


Organizational citizenship: behavior positive to contribution outside strict requirements of the job

Dysfunctional behaviors: organizational performance detracting behaviors


“Scientific Method” steps:

  1. Theory
  2. Hypothesis
  3. Data
  4. Verification

The Reading- “Theory X and Y” and Relevant Class-Concept Videos/Presentations:

Theory X Workers → Controlling Management:

  • Dislike work
  • Must be supervised and pushed to perform
  • Avoid responsibility
  • Prefer to be directed
  • Lower-levels needs

Theory Y Workers → Empowering Management:

  • Like work
  • Self-direct
  • Seek responsibility if motivated
  • Creative if motivated
  • Higher-level needs

Module 2

Current diversity trends and major benefits of diversity for business:

  • Better decisions
  • Better creativity, innovation, and competitive advantage
  • Better hiring and engagement
  • It’s legally required

Diversity → observable and unobservable things among people

Surface-level diversity: demographics (education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity)

Deep-level diversity: psychographics (personality, values, opinions, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles)


Six barriers to diversity inclusion:

  1. Stereotype (pattern completing)
  2. Prejudice (preconceived notions)
  3. Perceived threat of loss
  4. “Like me” bias (tribal, we like those who are like us)
  5. Unequal access to organization networks
  6. Ethnocentrism (my culture is better than others)

Reciprocal mentoring → pair senior with junior employees


Discrimination → employment decisions are not job related


Affirmative Actionreactively correct past injustice

Misconceptions: people don’t know the criteria

Equal employment opportunity (EEO) legislationproactively prevent discrimination

  • Civil Rights Act (Title VII) → employment race, color, sex, religion, and origin
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act → 40+ age, no retirement required
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act
  • American with Disabilities Act → essentially qualified
    • What is reasonable accomodation?

Diversity Management Program

  1. Education
  2. Enforcement
  3. Exposure

Three diversity paradigms:

  1. Discrimination and Fairness Paradigm
    • Demographic based, denies difference
    • All the same. Differences don‘t matter.
  2. Access and Legitimacy Paradigm
    • Demographic based, isolated differences
  3. Learning and Effectiveness Paradigm
    • Demographics and psychographics
    • With our differences”

IBM four pillars of change:

  1. Leadership support
  2. Employee engagement
  3. Integral management practices
  4. Linked to business goals

“Why Most Diversity Programs Fail”

Main reason for failure of diversity programs: Efforts can make things worse. Most focus on controlling manager’s behaviors that approach tends to activate bias

Three tools for Effective Diversity Programs:

  1. Engagement: prompt them to act in ways that support a particular view, their opinions can shift toward that view
  2. Contact: ex: whites fighting alongside blacks came to see them as soldiers first and foremost
  3. Social Accountability: plays on need to look good in the eyes around us; ex: discuss grades with peers can lead to judging work based on quality

Module 3

Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions:

  1. Individualism/collectivism
  2. Power distance — Authoritarian ←→ Egalitarian
  3. Uncertainty avoidance — High (Risk-adverse) ←→ Low (Entrepreneur)
  4. Masculinity/Femininity
  5. Long-term/Short-term values

The Big Five:

  • Openness
  • Consciouncessness
  • Extraversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism

Locus of control: Circumstances are result of → one’s actions   external factors

Self-efficacy: confidence in specific task

Self-esteem: confidence in overall self


Emotional intelligence:

  1. Self-awareness
  2. Self-management
  3. Self-motivation
  4. Empathy
  5. Social skills

Person-job fit

Person-group fit

Person-organization fit

Person-vocation fit (profession)