I’ve long known about synonym and antonym. I’ve never heard about any of these other semanic relations though.
|pretty and attractive are synonyms
|up and down are antonyms
|animal is a hypernym of mammal
|dog is a hyponym of mammal
|bark is a meronym of tree
|part of itself
|forest is a holonym of tree, body → arm → elbow
|a particular way
|trim and slice, slide and spin, snack and nibble
|man and woman share various hypernyms (human, person, adult)
Originally, the word dashboard applied to a barrier of wood or leather fixed at the front of a horse-drawn carriage or sleigh to protect the driver from mud or other debris “dashed up” (thrown up) by the horses’ hooves. – [Wikipedia] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashboard)
I noticed some ketchup packets said “tomato ketchup” and got curious why it needed to specify tomato. The obvious and correct answer is that ketchup used to be made with things other than tomatoes like fermented mushrooms or walnuts.